Basics of Computer and its Operations

Basics of Computer and its Operations

Introduction :

A computer is an electronic device that can receive, store, process, and output data. It is a machine that can perform a variety of tasks and operations, ranging from simple calculations to complex simulations and artificial intelligence.

Computers consist of hardware components such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory, storage devices, input/output devices, and peripherals, as well as software components such as the operating system and applications.

The history of computers can be traced back to the 19th century when mechanical devices such as the Analytical Engine and tabulating machines were developed. However, modern computers as we know them today were developed in the mid-20th century with the invention of the transistor and the development of integrated circuits.

Today, computers are widely used in various industries such as education, finance, healthcare, and entertainment, and they have revolutionized the way we live, work, and communicate. They have also given rise to a new era of technology such as the internet, cloud computing, and mobile devices, which have further transformed our daily lives.44

Full Form of Computer

COMPUTER Full Form: “Commonly Operated Machine Particularly Used for Technical and Educational Research

This is a retrochronous expansion, originally from the mid-20th century, indicating the prevalent uses of computers at the time.

The full form of COMPUTER"

Computer is a device that transforms data into meaningful information. It processes the input according to the set of instructions provided to it by the user and gives the desired output quickly. A Computer can perform the following set of functions:

  • Accept data
  • Store data
  • Process data as desired
  • Retrieve the stored data as and when required
  • Print the result in desired format.

Who is the Father of Computer?

The father of computer is “Charles Babbage” and it is invented in 19th century.

The computer system follows:-

What are Input Devices?

An input device is any hardware device or peripheral that allows users to provide data or control signals to a computer or information processing system. These devices are essential for users to interact with computers and input commands or information for processing.

Input Devices

Input Device are the devices that are used to send signals to the computer for performing tasks. The receiver at the end is the CPU (Central Processing Unit), which works to send signals to the output devices. Some of the classifications of Input devices are:

  • Keyboard Devices
  • Mouse
  • Scanners

Some of the input devices are described below.


The keyboard is the most frequent and widely used input device for entering data into a computer. Although there are some additional keys for performing other operations, the keyboard layout is similar to that of a typical typewriter.
Generally, keyboards come in two sizes: 84 keys or 101/102 keys but currently keyboards with 104 keys or 108 keys are also available for Windows and the Internet.

  • Numeric Keys: It is used to enter numeric data or move the cursor. It usually consists of a set of 17 keys.
  • Typing Keys: The letter keys (A-Z) and number keys (09) are among these keys.
  • Control Keys: These keys control the pointer and the screen. There are four directional arrow keys on it. Home, End, Insert, Alternate(Alt), Delete, Control(Ctrl), etc., and Escape are all control keys (Esc).
  • Special Keys: Enter, Shift, Caps Lock, NumLk, Tab, etc., and Print Screen are among the special function keys on the keyboard.
  • Function Keys: The 12 keys from F1 to F12 are on the topmost row of the keyboard.


Mouse is an input device developed by Douglas Engelbart in the 1960s. It is also know as pointing device that is mainly used for instructions ( Selected, Scroll, Open, Close items on the compputer system )


Mouse has 3 button:-

  • Left Button: This button is the primary button on the mouse and is used for selecting items, clicking on icons, opening files, and executing commands. It is located on the left side of the mouse for right-handed users.
  • Right Button: The right button is usually located on the right side of the mouse (for right-handed users) and is used to access context menus, perform secondary actions, or execute specific functions depending on the software or application.
  • Scroll Wheel: The scroll wheel is positioned between the left and right buttons and is used for scrolling vertically through documents, web pages, or other content. On many mice, the scroll wheel can also be pressed (act as a third button) to perform additional functions like opening links in new tabs or closing windows.

Write full formsRAM, ROM, ALU, CU, CPU, GUI, LCD, LED, VDU, DVD, HD, CD, FD, PD

RAM : Random Access Memory

ROM : Read Only Memory

ALU : Arithmetic Logic Unit

CU : Control Unit

CPU : Central Processing Unit

GUI : Graphical User Interface

LCD : Liquid Crystal Display

LED : Light Emitting Diode

VDU : Visual Display Unit

DVD : Digital Versatile Disc

HD : High Definition

CD : Compact Disc

FD : Floppy Disk

PD : Public Domain

Difference between RAM and Hard-disk

RAM Hard Disk
RAM is an electronic device Hard-disk is an electromechanical device
Electronic device are faster in speed Electro-mechanical device has speed slower than Electronic device.
CPU is an electronic device,so it’s speed can match with RAM.Therefore,CPU and RAM have connections and that connections is known as buses Hard disk is an electro-mechanical device.Therefore,it’s speed cannot be match by CPU and hence there is no connection between hard-disk and CPU.
RAM is much faster than a hard-disk. RAM is a type of volatile memory that can be accessed quickly by the CPU. This allows for fast data processing and multitasking.  Hard-disk is a type of non-volatile storage that is much slower than RAM. It is used for long-term storage of data that needs to be preserved even when the computer is turned off.
RAM is volatile, meaning that its contents are lost when the computer is turned off. Hard-disk is non-volatile, meaning that its contents are preserved even when the computer is turned off. This makes hard-disk an ideal choice for long-term storage of data.

CPU process the data, and to process that data we need fast speed memory which is known as RAM.

Types of Software

  1. System Software : These are those software,without which our PC,laptop won’t run, i.e it is must for a device to be operating. For Example: Linux,Unix,Windows,etc.
  2. Application Software : These are those software,without which our PC,laptop can run, i.e these software are not necessary for a device to be operating. For Example: Facebook,What’s App,Games.

Difference between Hacker and Cracker

  1. Hacker : They will just warn you something about malicious activity going around in your computer.It will not steal your information.
  2. Cracker : They will try to steal your Information without informing you.
  • Basics of Computer and its Operations
  • Basics of Computer and its Operations
  • Basics of Computer and its Operations
  • Basics of Computer and its Operations

Also Read:-BCA 1st Semester Syllabus (2024)

Hi 👋, I'm Gauravzack Im a security information analyst with experience in Web, Mobile and API pentesting, i also develop several Mobile and Web applications and tools for pentesting, with most of this being for the sole purpose of fun. I created this blog to talk about subjects that are interesting to me and a few other things.

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